The Balanced Scorecard: En eksplorativ tilgang med udgangspunkt i data

Oliver Emil S√łndergaard

Student thesis: Diploma thesis


The Balanced Scorecard has since its introduction in 1992 and later adjustments, won several awards and prices for its capabilities as a performance management, and control system. By combining financial measures on historical performance with none financial measures as a tool for predicting future financial performance, The Balanced Scorecard is being used by companies all over the world. However, the theory has faced some criticism over the years. One point of criticism concerns the validity of a claimed series of causal relationships through the perspectives of the scorecard. In other words, it is claimed that companies allegedly can execute certain initiatives in the none financial perspectives and expect certain positive effects in the financial perspective. If this claim is false or incorrect, the consequence could potentially be harmful or even devastating for both strategy and company. In this thesis the reader will briefly be introduced to The Balanced Scorecard and later an analysis of the criticism of the causal relationships. Other relevant points of criticism will also be analyzed. The analysis has demonstrated certain issues with the claimed causal relationships. One point being that the relationships does not meet certain criteria for causality. In some cases, the analysis instead concludes the existence of logical relationships or points towards interdependent relationships between measures in the four perspectives. On this basis it is problematic if companies are using The Balanced Scorecard-theory and expect certain outcomes based on a false or misleading claim of cause and effect. As a proposal to meet the conclusions of the analysis of criticism, it is suggested to approach development of strategy and the creation of a Balanced Scorecard from an inductive and exploratory approach on the basis of data. By doing so, companies will be able to discover actual causal relationships and develop more precise strategies. As a consequence, an alternative balanced scorecardframework has been introduced in this thesis. This framework is based on an inductive approach to developing strategy and scorecards and the deductive implementation of these with either verification, adjustments or rejection of the hypothesis as a result. In case of rejection new inductive studies will be performed and the process is then repeated. The inductive approach will require companies to work with data on a whole new scale, why it is suggested how companies can obtain data and translate this to causal relationships, insights, initiatives and ultimately more precise strategies.

EducationsGraduate Diploma in Accounting and Financial Management, (Diploma Programme) Final Thesis
Publication date2019
Number of pages94