In this paper, I'm going to investigate how the neofunctionalism can explain integration and disintegration in the European Union relating to the crises in the 1970s and the last decade. I expect that the crises in both periods have led to both integration and disintegration in the EU and that these integration dynamics partly can be explained be the neofunctionalist concepts spill-over and spill-back. However, I expect that today's crises are more serious and therefore that the future of (the direction of) the integration in the EU is more uncertain.
First, I will explain and elaborate the neofunctionalism (which is a central part of my project). Then I'm going to look at the oil crises and economic stagnation in the EC/EU in/during the 1970s and how these affected the integration in the union using the neofunctionalism to explain the processes. After that I'm going to go through the latest crises in the EU, that is the economic and financial crisis together with the refugee crisis and analyze how they have affected the dynamics of integration in the union (again) by using the concepts of the neofunctionalism. After having analyzed these two periods I will compare them and their crises looking at how the integration and disintegration in the EU have been affected by using the neofunctionalist theory. Lastly, I will discuss the future scenarios of the EU.
My analysis shows that the neofunctionalism can explain integration and disintegration relating to the crises in the 1970s and the last decade using spill-over and spill-back, but also that the theory place too little emphasis on the states and the citizens. During the 1970s the oil crises and the economic stagnation led to stagnation in the integration process and focus shifted to intergovernmental collaboration. However, after the second oil crisis the EC/EU started experiencing deeper integration once again. The crises during the last decade (the economic and financial crisis and the refugee crises) have also resulted in both integration and disintegration, but generally it has been difficult to reach common agreements. Also, the crises today are more serious because they partly are a result of the half-finished constructions of the EU, that is the EMU and the Schengen. However, it is still unsure if these crises in the long term are going to lead to more and deeper integration in the EU (as after the 1970s). Therefore, there are different future scenarios for the EU, i.e. a EU in different speeds or a more flexible EU.
|Educations||Cand.ling.merc Erhvervssprog og International Erhvervskommunikation (Multikulturel Kommunikation i Organisationer), (Graduate Programme) Final Thesis|
|Number of pages||77|
|Supervisors||Kristian Lau Nielsen|