This master thesis is about the cooperation between Russia and the EU in the field of natural gas. The thesis formulates the problem of the political and security issues that come along with the trade of natural gas with Russia. The thesis aims to uncover which issues occur and why they do so. The thesis’s hypothesis suggested that relations between the EU and Russia were still defined by the Cold War spirit. The hypothesis suggested therefore to look towards Russia’s dialogue with NATO, where the Cold War spirit is still at large. The analysis will result in points of advice to the EU- commissioner in the field of energy, Günther Oettinger on how to cooperate with Russia in the field of natural gas. Through an analysis of the power balance between the EU and Russia in their trade of natural gas, using realist theory in International Relations, the thesis uncovered a great unbalance in the relationship between Russia and the EU based on Russia holding all the advantages in the field of resources, political unity and swiftness of actions. The EU’s on the other hands is fragmented by varying dependence and pricing on Russian natural gas among member states and by being unable to reach an agreement on the 20 -20-20 climate targets. Through an analysis of the trade and cooperation in the field of natural gas between the EU and Russia, using liberalist theory in International Relations, the thesis uncovered Russia’s lack of will to participate in trade agreements and organizations, which do not favor the country economically. Instead Russia joins the natural gas cartel GECF. Through an analysis of a possible securitization of the Nabucco project, using the securitization theory in International Relations, the thesis uncovered that although all the factors were in place for a successful securitization of Nabucco, it still did not get the wanted amount of attention to result in an extraordinary action from its target audience. Instead a successful securitization of the 20-20-20 climate targets took place. More so, Nabucco was forced out by a competing project from Azerbaijan and is forced to reduce its length and capacity by 30 %. Through an analysis of NATO’s relations with Russia, using the Regional Security Complex Theory in International Relations, the thesis uncovered that NATO threatens the Russian security complex with its new missile defense system. In this particular dialogue, Russia’s security was threatened, unlike in the gas dialogue, where Russia threatens EU’s energy security. Russia’s behavior was aggressive and threatening, demanding a legal document that secures the country from NATO’s use of the missile defense system. Since NATO was not able to provide such a document, the dialogue has been a stalemate. EU should thus not look towards NATO’s dialogue with Russia, since the extreme and threatening nature of the current dialogue. The points of advice for the EU- commissioner in the field of energy, Günther Oettinger are: • Completion of the Nabucco- West project is mandatory, as it reduces Russia’s dominance in the supply of natural gas to the EU. • EU should not look towards NATO’s dialogue with Russia regarding the missile defense system, since the dialogue has an extreme and threatening nature. • The EU member states should agree on reaching the 20-20-20 climate targets, especially in the field of reducing the use of energy, thus reducing the need for and dependence on Russian natural gas.
|Educations||MA in International Business Communication (Intercultural Marketing), (Graduate Programme) Final Thesis|
|Number of pages||43|