The Danish opt-out and the social capital in Denmark – an analysis of the referendum of changing the Danish opt-out to and opt-in and the reasons to the outcome Immigration to Denmark has had varied success adopting the values and norms that constitutes the societal contract. Refugees and the following family reunifications has especially had difficulties accustoming to the Danish labour market, which shows in reports from Danmarks Statistik. This has led to an active immigration policy, where immigration of qualified and skilled labour force has been encouraged while rules for asylum and family reunification has been tightened. This has resulted in a more focused immigration that is more suited to the conserving of the Danish welfare state. The Danish opt-out and the social capital in Denmark – an analysis of the referendum on changing the Danish opt-out to an opt-in, and the reasons for the outcome. The 2015 Danish referendum in was supposed to give Denmark a seat at the European table of negotiations when discussing justice and home affairs. The Danish population however, voted to keep the Danish opt-out. Thereby preserving the Danish sovereignty, keeping decision making power away from the Danish Folketing as well as not surrendering legislative powers to EU. This thesis focusses on the Danish social capital, and the influence it has had on the Danish immigration policy and the wish to preserve sovereignty on the matter of asylum and immigration in regards to the EU. This thesis will be divided in three parts. The first will examine the lead up to and cause of the referendum. The second part will focus on the Danish social capital; how it is expressed and preserved. The final part will examine the influence of social capital on Danish immigration policy. The concerns regarding the 2015 referendum were primarily to change the opt-out to an opt-in model, known from the British EU-membership. The opt-in model would surrender the sovereignty of choosing EU-law for the Danish Folketing. This meant that the Danish Folketing potentially joins the common asylum and immigration policy of the European Union. It is, however, illustrated in this thesis that the Danish people regard the asylum and immigration policy as one of their high politics, serving as an obstruction to further EU integration. This is due to the social capital in Denmark and the construction of the Danish welfare state. The Danish welfare state is universal, and therefore consists of high levels of welfare support that are unconditioned by employment - unlike the liberal or conservative welfare models. This has created one of the worlds biggest systems of re-distribution, which Side 4 af 90 in turn requires a high level of employment and trust among the population. The trust required is in particular general trust, and refers to trusting people that you do not have regular contact with. This is measured by the European Values Study and the World Values Survey, which conducts surveys on a regular basis asking: "Generally speaking would you say that most people can be trusted, or that you need to be very careful in dealing with people?" . The general trust in Denmark has created a high level of social capital, and is expressed as a societal contract that keeps high earning and well educated people in Denmark, despite a high incentive to emigrate to countries with lower levels of taxation. The contract also encourages low skilled and low earning people to seek employment, despite it often being more economically attractive to stay on welfare support. Immigration to Denmark has had varied success adopting the values and norms that constitutes the societal contract. Refugees and the following family reunifications especially have had difficulties becoming accustomed to the Danish labour market, which shows in reports from Danmarks Statistik. This has led to an active immigration policy. One where the immigration of a qualified and skilled labour force has been encouraged, while rules for asylum and family reunification has been tightened. This has resulted in a more focused immigration, which is more suited to the conservation of the Danish welfare state.
|Educations||MA in International Business Communication (Intercultural Marketing), (Graduate Programme) Final Thesis|
|Number of pages||91|