Strategic and financial valuation of Carlsberg A/S

Andri Stefánsson

Student thesis: Master thesis


The main objective of this thesis was to determine the theoretical fair value of one Carlsberg A/S share on the 1st of March 2011. Carlsberg A/S is the world´s 4th largest brewery measured in sales volume and has acquired this position both through organic growth as well as acquisitions of its competitors as a part of the consolidation phase that the brewing industry has undergone in the past 10 years. In order to obtain the necessary understanding of the company´s business model, a strategic analysis was carried out both on an external as well as on an internal level. The strategic analysis showed that Carlsberg has a very strong product portfolio and one of its main strengths was innovation in regards to new products targeting new market segments. Being the 4th largest brewery in the world creates great economies of scale which are of importance. The strategic analysis also showed that the political and economical situation in Russia is of most threat to Carlsberg. The strategic analysis was followed by a financial analysis which showed that all key financial drivers rose upon till 2008 when the recent economic crisis hit and Carlsberg at the same time acquired Scottish & Newcastle. From 2009 the key financial drivers showed improvements both due to Carlsberg being able to make use of the synergies created as a part of the acquisition along with an increase in revenue and lower borrowing costs. The valuation was based on the DCF and EVA valuation models. Based on both models the theoretical fair price of one Carlsberg A/S share was determined to be DKK 649. This is 12.87% higher than the market price at the time indicating that the share is undervalued by the market participants. As a valuation is bound with many assumptions and uncertainty a sensitivity analysis was conducted which showed that the theoretical share price was more sensitive to changes in the cost of capital than it was to changes in the growth factor. As the valuation showed that the share was undervalued at the time the author therefore recommended investors to buy the share for long-term investments.

EducationsMSc in Finance and Strategic Management, (Graduate Programme) Final Thesis
Publication date2011
Number of pages102