Ports have changed profoundly over the last decades. The container was invented in the 1950’s, which increased the competitiveness of seaborne transportation. As container shipping began to dominate the market there was an increase in globalization in the general macro economy. This globalization meant that the shipping sector grew significantly since the 50’s. It has also meant that outsourcing has become more normal in the industry. The maritime sector has had to adapt to these changes. The shipping lines have always been global but they have been integrating a lot both horizontally by merging with other shipping lines and forming alliances with yet other shipping lines. The shipping lines however have also integrated vertically by acquiring new businesses such as terminal operators and hinterland logistic companies.
In the ports the container caused a lot of cost savings as loading and unloading of cargo became much faster and required fewer employees. In the early day of the container most ports were owned and operated by the local and even federal governments. This has changed and the most commonly used type of port in today’s ports is the landlord port. In this port structure the port authorities are mainly concerned with ensuring smooth operation in the ports by attracting private companies to the port. These private companies are increasingly becoming large multinational companies that have operations in many ports around the world. These companies are involved in many different aspects of the port products around the world including but not limited to warehousing and terminal operations. However, it is complicated to obtain efficient partnerships between the public port authorities and the private companies that are working within the port. For a partnership to be efficient it is necessary to understand why these partnerships are becoming the norm. The private companies might get a share of a potentially very lucrative market. The local authorities however might get access to easier financing of port infrastructure. Furthermore ports are extremely expensive and the benefits to the taxpayers might be questioned. However, the local authorities have a major impact on the effectiveness of the private companies in the port by way of rules and regulations.
As the competition in the maritime sector have becoming increasingly difficult in recent years effective management have become increasingly important. There are several different measures to effective management of ports and these are important to understand because the most efficient port is in many cases the cheapest. Therefore the most efficient port is likely to be the port that is chosen. However that is not always the case as there are many different aspects to port selection. Effectiveness measures in ports are many but productivity and hinterland connectivity is among them.
As many shippers are indifferent to which port their goods come trough it is necessary for the port authorities to distinguish themselves from other port alternatives. This can be done trough effective stakeholder management. Stakeholders are defined as every group that has a claim in an issue. In this case this means every group or individual who can affect or is affected by the decisions made by the port authorities. Effective stakeholder management is concerned with managing a very diverse environment in which multiple worldviews must be aligned. This means that the port authorities will have to prioritize some stakeholders to make them happy. This prioritization could however negatively impact other stakeholders.
This thesis will be concerned with Jade Weser Port, which is the newest entry into the Hamburg – Le Havre range of ports. Jade Weser Port was planned around year 2000 and opened in 2012. The feasibility study showed a scenario where the German ports were running out of capacity and the existing German ports were difficult to access by the increasingly large vessels. However Jade Weser Port have been slow to pick up pace after the inauguration.
|Educations||, (Graduate Programme) Final Thesis|
|Number of pages||240|