Variability in Pension Products: A Comparison Study Between the Netherlands and Denmark

Anne G. Balter, Malene Kallestrup-Lamb*, Jesper Rangvid

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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The Danish and the Dutch pension systems are often referred to as "among the best in the world". We compare pension systems and pension products in Denmark and The Netherlands. We focus on the shifts that have taken place in both countries, from pension products with relatively low levels of risk for the participant to pension products with more risk but also higher expected return. We end by drawing lessons that are relevant for discussions in many countries.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAnnals of Actuarial Science
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)338-357
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2020

Bibliographical note

Published online: 14. May 2020


  • Guarantees
  • Non-guarantees
  • Variable annuities

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