This article provides a counterpoint to Hashai and Buckley's article ‘Is competitive advantage a necessary condition for the emergence of the multinational enterprise?’ We agree with their conclusion that it is, in fact, not a necessary condition, but argue that the theoretical reasons behind this are different and more diverse than the ones they propose. We suggest that much extant economic theory is, in fact, consistent with their view that firms may internationalize without owning or achieving competitive advantages, and we model various other ways in which imperfections can drive their overall result. We strongly applaud Hashai and Buckley's attempt to add more rigor to international business theory and call for future work to extend this debate.

Publication information

Original languageEnglish
JournalGlobal Strategy Journal
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)49-54
StatePublished - Feb 2014

ID: 39429986