Upgrading Trajectories in South Africa: Exploring the Roles of Customer and Supplier Link Types in Manufacturers’ Economic, Social and Environmental Upgrading

Rachel Alexander, Aarti Krishnan

Research output: Working paperResearch


This study explores determinants of firms’ economic, social and environmental upgrading and downgrading trajectories in South Africa, with a focus on the manufacturing sector. Specifically, it considers connections between firms’ buyer and supplier relationships and their upgrading outcomes. Data is drawn from the World Bank Enterprise Surveys of 2007 and 2020 and analysed using social network and econometric analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationJohannesburg
PublisherUniversity of Johannesburg
Number of pages67
ISBN (Electronic)9780639836362
Publication statusPublished - 2023
SeriesSARChI Industrial Development Working Paper Series


  • Production
  • Cost
  • Capital
  • Total factor and multifactor productivity
  • Capacity
  • Transactional relationships
  • Contracts and reputation
  • Networks
  • Industry studies
  • Manufacturing
  • Wages
  • Compensation and labour costs
  • Environment and development
  • Environment and trade
  • Sustainability
  • Environmental accounts and accounting
  • Environmental equity
  • Population growth

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