Too Afraid to Travel? Development of a Pandemic (COVID-19) Anxiety Travel Scale (PATS)

Sebastian Zenker*, Erik Braun, Szilvia Gyimothy Mørup-Petersen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Pandemics are affecting tourism in many ways. Being a niche research field before, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic created a strong urgency to develop this topic. For researching pandemic-induced changes in tourist beliefs and travel behaviour, we developed a construct that measures the intra-personal anxiety of travellers (and non-travellers): the Pandemic (COVID-19) Anxiety Travel Scale (PATS), using two large online studies (N=2,180; N=2,062) and including two different cultural contexts (US; Denmark). In Study 1, explorative and confirmative factors analysis confirms a short and easy-to-use 5-item solution, while the presented model adds face validity. In Study 2, we confirmed the structure (reliability) and tested nomological validity, by putting PATS into the context of different constructs (xenophobia and prevention focus). Although the proposed scale arose from the coronavirus (COVID-19), it is not limited to this specific pandemic and will hopefully prove to be a valuable measurement tool for future pandemics as well.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104286
JournalTourism Management
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

Published online: 11. Januar 2021


  • Scale Development
  • Pandemic
  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus
  • Tourist Behaviour
  • Xenophobia
  • Risk Perception

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