The Xenophobic Tourist

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Addressing the global rise of xenophobia, the authors provide the first investigation of tourist xenophobia (TXO) and its role in shaping tourist behavior. Drawing on research from evolutionary and social psychology, they define TXO as a tourist’s perceptual discomfort and anxiety associated with strangers encountered at foreign destinations. The authors develop a reliable, valid and parsimonious TXO scale, and document its importance empirically. The results show that TXO is an important driver behind many, often neglected, behavioral phenomena, such as tourists’ preference for travel-related vaccination, willingness to try local food, preference for group travel, travel insurance and agency-booked travel, willingness to travel and actual travel behavior. The authors conclude by discussing implications of the findings for research, practice and policy.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAnnals of Tourism Research
Pages (from-to)155-166
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Tourist xenophobia
  • Tourist behavior
  • Tourist psychology
  • Evolutionary psychology

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