The Impact of Contingencies on Entrepreneurship Education Outcomes

Anna Vuorio*, Giulio Zichella, Olukemi Sawyerr

*Corresponding author for this work

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The results of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) impact research have been equivocal, and one suggested explanation is the influence of contingencies such as the types of learning experiences, gender, and field of study. In this paper we aim to answer the question of which contingencies shape the outcome of EE by examining the outcome variables of entrepreneurial intentions (EI) and creative self-efficacy (CSE). Utilizing a quasi-experimental pre-post survey design, we surveyed 209 students from three universities who were exposed to three different learning experiences: writing a business plan, achieving proof-of-concept, and achieving proof-of-business. Through multi-value qualitative comparative analysis, we found six unique combinations associated with high levels of EI and CSE, respectively, after a learning experience. High EI and CSE are both associated with developing proof-of-concept and proof-of-business, but not with writing a business plan. Also, students’ fields of study play a role in high levels of EI regardless of the learning experience, while students’ prior work experience seems to play a role in EI and CSE.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEntrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)299-330
Number of pages32
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • Entrepreneurship education
  • Entrepreneurial intent
  • Experiential learning
  • Entrepreneurial mindset
  • Creative self-efficacy

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