The Effect of Warmth and Competence on Consumer Outcomes: A Meta-analytical Investigation

Anne-Maree O'Rourke, Alex Belli, Mansur Khamitov, Georgios Halkias

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


The Stereotype Content Model has been widely and increasingly applied in branding; yet it is unclear under what conditions its two dimensions of warmth and competence are more effective for consumer outcomes. We address this by testing four moderator categories (consumer outcome type, object characteristics, context, and delivery) in large-scale meta-regressions (k=1,166; 86,291 respondents; 22 countries represented). We meta-analytically demonstrate that both warmth and competence generally have a favorable medium-sized effect, but more importantly, we show that some notable differences are observed in our moderators. Namely, warmth is more effective in changing attitudes than behaviors, whilst the impact of competence is higher in driving behaviors than attitudes. Warmth seems to be particularly effective with regards to luxury products, objects with search attributes, prosocial and political contexts. On the other hand, competence shows stronger effects for foreign brands, those consumed in public, and contexts related to a brand failure. Implications for both Scholars and Practitioners are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the European Marketing Academy : EMAC 2023 Annual Conference
Number of pages1
Place of PublicationBrussels
PublisherEuropean Marketing Academy. EMAC
Publication date2023
Article number114066
Publication statusPublished - 2023
EventThe 52nd EMAC Annual Conference 2023 - University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
Duration: 23 May 202326 May 2023
Conference number: 52


ConferenceThe 52nd EMAC Annual Conference 2023
LocationUniversity of Southern Denmark
Internet address
SeriesProceedings of the European Marketing Academy


  • Branding
  • Consumer behaviour

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