The Economic Burden of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Sibling Comparison Cost Analysis

David M. Daley, Rasmus Højbjerg Jacobsen, Anne-Mette Lange, Anders Sørensen, Jeanette Walldorf

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Aim: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a lifespan disorder associated with considerable economic cost. While the economic burden of ADHD has been widely estimated, there is considerable variation in reported costs between studies, which typically focus on health outcomes only, lack adequate control and fail to correct for the influence of genetic and shared environmental factors. The aim of this study is to overcome these limitations to reach a fuller understanding of the economic burden of ADHD.
Method: Using the Danish National Registers 5269 adults with a diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood who had not received a diagnosis in childhood were identified. Excluding cases with missing data, comorbid diagnoses, and cases without a same sex sibling free of any diagnosed psychiatric diagnoses, a final cohort was formed consisting of 460 sibling dyads. Using a cross-sectional method focusing on the year 2010, cost differences between each adult with ADHD and their sibling were calculated from data retrieved from health, education, crime, employment and social care registers.
Results: Adults with ADHD had considerably lower disposable income and paid less tax than their siblings. They also received more state benefits, had higher costs for health, social care, and crime than their siblings. The total average costs difference for the year 2010 was 20,134 euros more than their sibling for each adult with ADHD.
Conclusion: ADHD is associated with considerable costs which are borne by both the individual and the state and underlines the need to consider the wider economic impact of ADHD beyond income and healthcare utilisation costs.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Psychiatry
Volume61
Pages (from-to)41-48
Number of pages8
ISSN0924-9338
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019

Cite this

@article{518c12dcb9434381a78fd407f29ea283,
title = "The Economic Burden of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Sibling Comparison Cost Analysis",
abstract = "Aim: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a lifespan disorder associated with considerable economic cost. While the economic burden of ADHD has been widely estimated, there is considerable variation in reported costs between studies, which typically focus on health outcomes only, lack adequate control and fail to correct for the influence of genetic and shared environmental factors. The aim of this study is to overcome these limitations to reach a fuller understanding of the economic burden of ADHD. Method: Using the Danish National Registers 5269 adults with a diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood who had not received a diagnosis in childhood were identified. Excluding cases with missing data, comorbid diagnoses, and cases without a same sex sibling free of any diagnosed psychiatric diagnoses, a final cohort was formed consisting of 460 sibling dyads. Using a cross-sectional method focusing on the year 2010, cost differences between each adult with ADHD and their sibling were calculated from data retrieved from health, education, crime, employment and social care registers. Results: Adults with ADHD had considerably lower disposable income and paid less tax than their siblings. They also received more state benefits, had higher costs for health, social care, and crime than their siblings. The total average costs difference for the year 2010 was 20,134 euros more than their sibling for each adult with ADHD. Conclusion: ADHD is associated with considerable costs which are borne by both the individual and the state and underlines the need to consider the wider economic impact of ADHD beyond income and healthcare utilisation costs.",
author = "Daley, {David M.} and {H{\o}jbjerg Jacobsen}, Rasmus and Anne-Mette Lange and Anders S{\o}rensen and Jeanette Walldorf",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1016/j.eurpsy.2019.06.011",
language = "English",
volume = "61",
pages = "41--48",
journal = "European Psychiatry",
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The Economic Burden of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder : A Sibling Comparison Cost Analysis. / Daley, David M.; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Lange, Anne-Mette; Sørensen, Anders; Walldorf, Jeanette.

In: European Psychiatry, Vol. 61, 09.2019, p. 41-48.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Economic Burden of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

T2 - A Sibling Comparison Cost Analysis

AU - Daley, David M.

AU - Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus

AU - Lange, Anne-Mette

AU - Sørensen, Anders

AU - Walldorf, Jeanette

PY - 2019/9

Y1 - 2019/9

N2 - Aim: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a lifespan disorder associated with considerable economic cost. While the economic burden of ADHD has been widely estimated, there is considerable variation in reported costs between studies, which typically focus on health outcomes only, lack adequate control and fail to correct for the influence of genetic and shared environmental factors. The aim of this study is to overcome these limitations to reach a fuller understanding of the economic burden of ADHD. Method: Using the Danish National Registers 5269 adults with a diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood who had not received a diagnosis in childhood were identified. Excluding cases with missing data, comorbid diagnoses, and cases without a same sex sibling free of any diagnosed psychiatric diagnoses, a final cohort was formed consisting of 460 sibling dyads. Using a cross-sectional method focusing on the year 2010, cost differences between each adult with ADHD and their sibling were calculated from data retrieved from health, education, crime, employment and social care registers. Results: Adults with ADHD had considerably lower disposable income and paid less tax than their siblings. They also received more state benefits, had higher costs for health, social care, and crime than their siblings. The total average costs difference for the year 2010 was 20,134 euros more than their sibling for each adult with ADHD. Conclusion: ADHD is associated with considerable costs which are borne by both the individual and the state and underlines the need to consider the wider economic impact of ADHD beyond income and healthcare utilisation costs.

AB - Aim: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a lifespan disorder associated with considerable economic cost. While the economic burden of ADHD has been widely estimated, there is considerable variation in reported costs between studies, which typically focus on health outcomes only, lack adequate control and fail to correct for the influence of genetic and shared environmental factors. The aim of this study is to overcome these limitations to reach a fuller understanding of the economic burden of ADHD. Method: Using the Danish National Registers 5269 adults with a diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood who had not received a diagnosis in childhood were identified. Excluding cases with missing data, comorbid diagnoses, and cases without a same sex sibling free of any diagnosed psychiatric diagnoses, a final cohort was formed consisting of 460 sibling dyads. Using a cross-sectional method focusing on the year 2010, cost differences between each adult with ADHD and their sibling were calculated from data retrieved from health, education, crime, employment and social care registers. Results: Adults with ADHD had considerably lower disposable income and paid less tax than their siblings. They also received more state benefits, had higher costs for health, social care, and crime than their siblings. The total average costs difference for the year 2010 was 20,134 euros more than their sibling for each adult with ADHD. Conclusion: ADHD is associated with considerable costs which are borne by both the individual and the state and underlines the need to consider the wider economic impact of ADHD beyond income and healthcare utilisation costs.

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DO - 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2019.06.011

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JF - European Psychiatry

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