The 'Casino Model' of Internationalization: An Alternative Uppsala Paradigm

Lars Håkanson, Philip Kappen

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    Forty years after the publication of the original Uppsala Model, we revisit the empirical observations that inspired its conceptual development. The empirical evidence, we suggest, invites the formulation of an alternative and complementary model of the internationalization process of the firm, one that we have named the 'Casino Model' of internationalization. The Casino Model uncovers a number of new research issues pertaining to internationalization and to the nature of strategic decision-making under conditions of environmental uncertainty and partial ignorance.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of International Business Studies
    Issue number9
    Pages (from-to)1103-1113
    Number of pages11
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017


    • Internationalization theories and foreign market entry theories
    • Managing uncertainty
    • Uppsala Model

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