Strategizing and Economizing in Global Strategy

Christian Geisler Asmussen, Nicolai J. Foss*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Research summary
The strategic management and international business fields have followed, in some respects, quite similar intellectual trajectories, as reflected in the push for a field of “global strategy.” However, a key distinction in the strategy literature—namely, Williamson's distinction between “strategizing” and “economizing”—has not been explicitly recognized in the international business/global strategy fields. We argue that progress can be made in global strategy by recognizing this distinction and exploring the interaction between “strategizing” and “economizing.” To lend credence to this claim, we offer a simple model of the entry decision which highlights both economizing and strategizing aspects of this decision. We also offer recommendations on economizing-strategizing research in global strategy.

Managerial summary
Multinational enterprises gain competitive advantage either by improving the efficiency with which they operate (by having unique resources, lowering costs, or improving managerial practices) or by exercising their market and bargaining power. Most research has emphasized the former source of competitive advantage. However, in actuality, the two sources are intertwined. We detail how they are intertwined by means of a simple numerical example of the entry decision facing a company that can choose between competing or collaborating with the local firm. We show that strategizing plays into the entry decision in this case.
Original languageEnglish
JournalGlobal Strategy Journal
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)578-591
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • Economizing
  • Global strategy
  • Strategizing
  • The entry decision

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