Significant progress has been made in reforming China's rural financial system. Nevertheless, the current institutions are unable to meet the multilayered and diversified demands for rural financial services. Establishing a comprehensive and efficient rural credit system to support the dynamic commercial sector of the rural economy, small-scale farming and small and medium-size enterprises is the major challenge in China. This article identifies bottlenecks and suggests policies to develop a well-functioning and sustainable agricultural and rural financial system that would address the diverse needs of the rural and agriculture sectors. To preview the policy recommendations, attention should be given first to legislation and supervision, and then to the corporate governance structure of financial institutions.