Pneumonia is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly amongst adults aged >70 years and children. Annual deaths due to pneumonia in these groups was estimated at more than one million and 672 000 worldwide for both groups, respectively, in 2019 . The importance of pneumonia is highlighted by impact of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on vulnerable populations. Yet, despite the high impact of pneumonia worldwide, diagnosing pneumonia, especially in children in low- and middle-income countries, remains a big challenge. Frequent clinical signs of pneumonia (cough and difficult or rapid breathing) are non-specific and can overlap with other prevalent diseases in these settings, such as malaria. Equally important, data provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) revealed that 40% of children with pneumonia symptoms in the 40 countries reporting 90% of child pneumonia deaths never receive medical care for their pneumonia . Furthermore, overdiagnosis of bacterial pneumonia and unnecessary administration of antibiotics poses an extra challenge, particularly in countries with limited resources for diagnostic procedures.