Multinational Enterprises from Small Economies: The Internationalization Pattern of Large Companies from Denmark, Finland and Norway

Gabriel Benito, Jorma Larimo, Rajneesh Narula, Torben Pedersen

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    Abstract

    Analyzing the internationalization of large companies from small countries requires understanding the process of internationalization by examining push-pull forces associated with the interface between micro and macro level factors. We examine the growth and international expansion of the ten largest companies in Denmark, Finland, and Norway over the period 1990 to 1999. Most companies in the sample became more international during the last decade across basically all the investigated dimensions of internationalization. This was particularly accentuated in the case of Norwegian firms, possibly due to their lower degree of internationalization at the beginning of the period. The study also shows that companies increasingly internationalized even such strategic activities as research and development activities, and headquarters functions.
    Original languageEnglish
    Place of PublicationFrederiksberg
    PublisherDepartment of International Economics and Management, Copenhagen Business School
    Number of pages34
    Publication statusPublished - 2001
    SeriesWorking Paper / Department of International Economics and Management, Copenhagen Business School
    Number13-2001

    Cite this

    Benito, G., Larimo, J., Narula, R., & Pedersen, T. (2001). Multinational Enterprises from Small Economies: The Internationalization Pattern of Large Companies from Denmark, Finland and Norway. Frederiksberg: Department of International Economics and Management, Copenhagen Business School. Working Paper / Department of International Economics and Management, Copenhagen Business School, No. 13-2001