Multi-disciplinary Perspectives on Citizen Science: Synthesizing Five Paradigms of Citizen Involvement

Susanne Beck*, Dilek Fraisl, Marion Poetz, Henry Sauermann

*Corresponding author for this work

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Research on Open Innovation in Science (OIS) investigates how open and collaborative practices influence the scientific and societal impact of research. Since 2019, the OIS Research Conference has brought together scholars and practitioners from diverse backgrounds to discuss OIS research and case examples. In this meeting report, we describe four session formats that have allowed our multi-disciplinary community to have productive discussions around opportunities and challenges related to citizen involvement in research. However, these sessions also highlight the need for a better understanding of the underlying rationales of citizen involvement in an increasingly diverse project landscape. Building on the discussions at the 2023 and prior editions of the conference, we outline a conceptual framework of five crowd paradigms and present an associated tool that can aid in understanding how citizen involvement in particular projects can help advance science. We illustrate this tool using cases presented at the 2023 conference, and discuss how it can facilitate discussions at future conferences as well as guide future research and practice in citizen science.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8
JournalCitizen Science: Theory and Practice
Issue number1
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Open Innovation in Science (OIS)
  • Open science
  • Citizen science
  • Crowd science
  • Crowd paradigms

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