Introducing the Northern Grouping

Michael Friederich Kluth*, Kennet Lynggaard, Mads Dagnis Jensen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Comprising only five states, the Northern grouping is by for the most homogenous collection of countries and have often been subject to most similar case design studies. Yet, despite their similarities and world leading index scores in democratic governance, social equality and high level of affluence, they exhibit strongly diverging responses and substantial variation in levels of politicization and modes of governance. Sweden is a key outlier with its tolerance for higher infection and mortality rates in exchange for less restrictive lockdown measures. While this initial approach was subsequently somewhat modified, it contrasts Finland’s imposition of a state of emergency and Iceland’s hybrid form of technocratic rule. All countries proved sufficiently robust to avoid lasting changes to their domestic polities and economic performance throughout the crisis diverged notably less then their handling of the pandemic.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGovernments' Responses to the Covid-19 Pandemic in Europe : Navigating the Perfect Storm
EditorsKennet Lynggaard, Mads Dagnis Jensen, Michael Kluth
Number of pages7
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Publication date2023
ISBN (Print)9783031141447
ISBN (Electronic)9783031141454
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Published online: 02 December 2022.


  • Covid-19 pandemic
  • Government responses
  • Comparative politics
  • European studies
  • Crisis management

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