Introducing the Eastern Grouping

Michael Friederich Kluth*, Kennet Lynggaard, Mads Dagnis Jensen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review


Despite their late transition to democracy and open markets and the significant socio-economic dislocations endured in the process, countries of the Eastern grouping mostly managed the initial wave of the pandemic well. In many cases, however, subsequent waves proved much harder to handle as rudimentary welfare regimes or populist leaders made sheltering households from the economic impact of the pandemic a priority. This fuelled premature reopening’s and inadequate restrictions in some countries. Comprising Poland, Romania, Czech Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Croatia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Latvia and Estonia, several states of the Eastern grouping escaped further democratic backsliding thanks to politicization which served to keep executive aggrandizement in check. Yet, many of the countries still suffer from low trust in authorities reflected in modest vaccination rates.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGovernments' Responses to the Covid-19 Pandemic in Europe : Navigating the Perfect Storm
EditorsKennet Lynggaard, Mads Dagnis Jensen, Michael Kluth
Number of pages8
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Publication date2023
ISBN (Print)9783031141447
ISBN (Electronic)9783031141454
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Published online: 02 December 2022.


  • Covid-19 pandemic
  • Government responses
  • Comparative politics
  • European studies
  • Crisis management

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