Intersectional Arithmetic: How Gender, Race and Mother Tongue Combine to Impact Immigrants’ Work Outcomes

Stacey R. Fitzsimmons, Jen Baggs, Mary Yoko Brannen

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


We use an intercategorical approach to intersectionality to quantify pay and attainment of supervisory positions for groups of immigrants and their descendants who also vary in gender, mother tongue, and race. Using a Canadian nationally representative sample of 20,000 employees across 6000 firms, we find a $10,000 spread in annual pay between the groups with the most advantages and those experiencing the most barriers, loosely corresponding to an additive model of intersectional benefits and barriers. The effects of immigrant generation are partially mitigated by the degree to which firms are internationally-oriented, indicating that international businesses may help to reduce inequities.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101013
JournalJournal of World Business
Issue number1
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020

Bibliographical note

Published online: 5. October 2019


  • Immigrants
  • Labor market
  • Intersectional
  • Gender
  • Language
  • Race

Cite this