International Business, Multinational Enterprises and Nationality of the Company: A Constructive Review of Literature

Alfred Reckendrees*, Boris Gehlen, Christian Marx

*Corresponding author for this work

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    In the aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis, the long-held confidence that ‘nationality’ would not matter in a globalised economy has dwindled. As the impact of economic and foreign policy on firms’ internationalisation and investment decisions appears to grow, and economic nationalism built on constructs of ‘nationality of the company’ gains weight, companies doing business abroad, including multinational enterprises operating in the US and Europe, are increasingly exposed to (often unexpected) implications of their ‘nationality’. We elaborate on related perspectives to the theme developed in the IB, global strategy, and international management literature and in business history. Based on these readings, we conceptualise the opaque notion of ‘nationality of the company’ and outline perspectives. We argue that ‘nationality’ appears in very different ways and suggest that research should focus more on specific political and institutional environments, and specific constructs of ‘nationality’.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalBusiness History
    Issue number9
    Pages (from-to)1567-1599
    Number of pages33
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

    Bibliographical note

    Published online: 14 September 2022.


    • Nationality
    • Political risk
    • Country risk
    • Cultural risk
    • Cultural distance
    • Liability of foreignness
    • Nationality planning
    • Tax planning
    • Headquarters change
    • Multinational enterprise
    • Multinational company
    • Emerging markets multinationals

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