India Industry 4.0 and Comparisons with Germany, South Korea and the USA

Anirudh Agrawal, Payal Kumar, Ashish Tyagi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review


While traditional Industry 4.0 is studied in the context of smart factories, the authors study it as a metaphor that represents the spill-over effects of digitalisation, high-speed internet, cloud-based super-computing on industry, countries, human resource development and national competitiveness. This chapter analyses the Industry 4.0 steps taken by the United States, Germany, South Korea and India. It compares strategic actions taken by these countries using a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT) analysis to understand the position of each country. The authors use Max Weber’s ideal types as a positivist frame of analysis for the country-level data and from this draws policy recommendations. Based on the current status of India and other countries, the chapter concludes by suggesting short-term, mid-term and long-term strategies to transform India into a highly competitive industrialised economy in the context of the fourth industrial revolution.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHuman & Technological Resource Management (HTRM) : New Insights into Revolution 4.0
EditorsPayal Kumar, Anirudh Agrawal, Pawan Budhwar
Number of pages24
Place of PublicationBingley
PublisherEmerald Group Publishing
Publication date2021
ISBN (Print)9781838672249
ISBN (Electronic)9781838672232, 9781838672256
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Published online: 16. November 2020.


  • Industry 4.0
  • India
  • Germany
  • South Korea
  • United States
  • Policy recommendations
  • Country comparison
  • Weber

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