Improving Trust in a (Trans)National Invoicing System: The Performance of Crash vs. Byzantine Fault Tolerance at Scale

Jonas Sveistrup Søgaard, Peter W. Eklund*, Lasse Herskind, Jason Spasovski

*Corresponding author for this work

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Crash fault tolerance describes the capability of a distributed system to maintain its proper function despite the occurrence of crashes or failures in one or more of its components. When a distributed system possesses crash fault tolerance, it can be further fortified to achieve Byzantine fault tolerance. Byzantine fault tolerance empowers a distributed system to establish consensus among participants, even when faced with faulty or malicious behavior. Consensus plays a critical role in various tasks, including determining the accurate value of a shared variable, electing a leader, or validating the integrity of a business transaction. Compared to crash fault tolerance, Byzantine fault tolerance instills greater trust because it enables consensus even in the presence of malicious entities. This paper focuses on the performance evaluation of two blockchain solutions that exhibit Byzantine fault tolerance, in contrast to a blockchain solution that demonstrates crash fault tolerance. Specifically, the paper investigates the additional performance requirements associated with the enhanced trust resulting from Byzantine fault tolerance in e-business trading on both national and transnational scales. We analyze the resources needed to operate a business-to-business/business-to-government (B2B/B2G) compliance framework in two distinct geographic scenarios. The first examines the national scale, using Denmark as an example, which is the eleventh largest European country by GDP. The second scenario considers the scale of the European Union (EU) with its 27 member states (plus the United Kingdom).
Original languageEnglish
Article number6941
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number12
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • Distributed ledger
  • Blockchain
  • National and transnational e-business
  • Distributed network trust
  • Crash fault tolerance
  • Byzantine fault tolerance
  • Business system scalability

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