Globalization and Employee Turnover: The Case of Bulgaria

Minna Paunova, Blagoy Blagoev

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review


This chapter examines some of the demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as cultural and institutional traditions, that help explain turnover and retention in Bulgaria. The case of Bulgaria illustrates that extant theories of turnover and retention may not be well suited to account for macroeconomic and large-scale social processes spurred by globalization. The focus here is on collective turnover at the organizational and particularly at upper levels of analysis (e.g., industry, region), and the authors emphasize four factors that they believe jointly contribute to the high levels of turnover in the country, namely (1) globalization processes affecting the country’s demography (i.e., mass international migration), (2) the economy (i.e., global labor arbitrage), (3) institutions (i.e., patchwork capitalism), and (4) culture (i.e., shifting generational values). To further scholarly progress, management scholars need to be more attentive to turnover – and its determinants – for larger collectives, that is, at levels above the unit and organizational. The authors provide concrete suggestions on how the case of Bulgaria opens up some avenues for future research on turnover and retention.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGlobal Talent Retention : Understanding Employee Turnover Around the World
EditorsDavid G. Allen, James M. Vardaman
Number of pages22
Place of PublicationBingley
PublisherEmerald Group Publishing
Publication date2021
ISBN (Print)9781839092947
ISBN (Electronic)9781839092930
Publication statusPublished - 2021
SeriesTalent Management


  • Collective turnover
  • Globalization
  • Migration
  • Offshoring
  • Patchwork capitalism
  • Cultural values

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