Further Evidence for the Role of Pregnancy-induced Hypertension and Other Early Life Influences in the Development of ADHD

Results from the IDEFICS Study

Hermann Pohlabeln, Stefan Rach, Stefaan De Henauw, Gabriele Eiben, Wencke Gwozdz, Charalampos Hadjigeorgiou, Dénes Molnar, Luis A. Moreno, Paola Russo, Toomas Veidebaum, Iris Pigeot, On behalf of the IDEFICS consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate whether in addition to established early risk factors other, less studied pre-, peri-, and postnatal influences, like gestational hypertension or neonatal respiratory disorders and infections, may increase a child’s risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). In the IDEFICS study more than 18,000 children, aged 2–11.9 years, underwent extensive medical examinations supplemented by parental questionnaires on pregnancy and early childhood. The present analyses are restricted to children whose parents also completed a supplementary medical questionnaire (n = 15,577), including the question whether or not the child was ever diagnosed with ADHD. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between early life influences and the risk of ADHD. Our study confirms the well-known association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and a child’s risk of ADHD. In addition, our study showed that children born to mothers younger than 20 years old were 3–4 times more likely to develop ADHD as compared to children born to mothers aged 25 years and older. Moreover, we found that children whose mothers suffered from pregnancy-induced hypertension had an approximately twofold risk of ADHD (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.09–3.48). This also holds true for infections during the first 4 weeks after birth (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.05–4.04). In addition, although not statistically significant, we observed a noticeable elevated risk estimate for neonatal respiratory disorders (OR 1.76; 95% CI 0.91–3.41). Hence, we recommend that these less often studied pre-, peri, and postnatal influences should get more attention when considering early indicators or predictors for ADHD in children. However, special study designs such as genetically sensitive designs may be needed to derive causal conclusions.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume26
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)957-967
Number of pages11
ISSN1018-8827
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2017

Keywords

  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders
  • European children cohort
  • Gestational hypertension
  • Maternal age
  • Neonatal respiratory disorders
  • Smoking

Cite this

Pohlabeln, Hermann ; Rach, Stefan ; De Henauw, Stefaan ; Eiben, Gabriele ; Gwozdz, Wencke ; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos ; Molnar, Dénes ; Moreno, Luis A. ; Russo, Paola ; Veidebaum, Toomas ; Pigeot, Iris ; On behalf of the IDEFICS consortium. / Further Evidence for the Role of Pregnancy-induced Hypertension and Other Early Life Influences in the Development of ADHD : Results from the IDEFICS Study. In: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2017 ; Vol. 26, No. 8. pp. 957-967.
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title = "Further Evidence for the Role of Pregnancy-induced Hypertension and Other Early Life Influences in the Development of ADHD: Results from the IDEFICS Study",
abstract = "The aim of this study is to investigate whether in addition to established early risk factors other, less studied pre-, peri-, and postnatal influences, like gestational hypertension or neonatal respiratory disorders and infections, may increase a child’s risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). In the IDEFICS study more than 18,000 children, aged 2–11.9 years, underwent extensive medical examinations supplemented by parental questionnaires on pregnancy and early childhood. The present analyses are restricted to children whose parents also completed a supplementary medical questionnaire (n = 15,577), including the question whether or not the child was ever diagnosed with ADHD. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between early life influences and the risk of ADHD. Our study confirms the well-known association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and a child’s risk of ADHD. In addition, our study showed that children born to mothers younger than 20 years old were 3–4 times more likely to develop ADHD as compared to children born to mothers aged 25 years and older. Moreover, we found that children whose mothers suffered from pregnancy-induced hypertension had an approximately twofold risk of ADHD (OR 1.95; 95{\%} CI 1.09–3.48). This also holds true for infections during the first 4 weeks after birth (OR 2.06; 95{\%} CI 1.05–4.04). In addition, although not statistically significant, we observed a noticeable elevated risk estimate for neonatal respiratory disorders (OR 1.76; 95{\%} CI 0.91–3.41). Hence, we recommend that these less often studied pre-, peri, and postnatal influences should get more attention when considering early indicators or predictors for ADHD in children. However, special study designs such as genetically sensitive designs may be needed to derive causal conclusions.",
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author = "Hermann Pohlabeln and Stefan Rach and {De Henauw}, Stefaan and Gabriele Eiben and Wencke Gwozdz and Charalampos Hadjigeorgiou and D{\'e}nes Molnar and Moreno, {Luis A.} and Paola Russo and Toomas Veidebaum and Iris Pigeot and {On behalf of the IDEFICS consortium}",
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Pohlabeln, H, Rach, S, De Henauw, S, Eiben, G, Gwozdz, W, Hadjigeorgiou, C, Molnar, D, Moreno, LA, Russo, P, Veidebaum, T, Pigeot, I & On behalf of the IDEFICS consortium 2017, 'Further Evidence for the Role of Pregnancy-induced Hypertension and Other Early Life Influences in the Development of ADHD: Results from the IDEFICS Study', European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 957-967. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-017-0966-2

Further Evidence for the Role of Pregnancy-induced Hypertension and Other Early Life Influences in the Development of ADHD : Results from the IDEFICS Study. / Pohlabeln, Hermann; Rach, Stefan ; De Henauw, Stefaan; Eiben, Gabriele; Gwozdz, Wencke; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A.; Russo, Paola; Veidebaum, Toomas; Pigeot, Iris; On behalf of the IDEFICS consortium.

In: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 26, No. 8, 01.08.2017, p. 957-967.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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AU - Rach, Stefan

AU - De Henauw, Stefaan

AU - Eiben, Gabriele

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AU - Moreno, Luis A.

AU - Russo, Paola

AU - Veidebaum, Toomas

AU - Pigeot, Iris

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