This Ph.D. project focuses on complex environmental and social global supply issues in line with the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. One of the possible key contributors to this Agenda is the maritime transport industry, which could drive sustainable development from various perspectives, such as tackling climate change, reducing societal inequalities, economic growth, etc. Derived from a broad range of potential shipping industry’s contributions to the Agenda, this project dwells on two specific areas on the basis of their urgency to respond at an international level, their global impact, as well as the importance of their adverse effects and their individual characteristics, which add more complexity to their addressment. The first area under study refers to the enhancement of the industry’s operational performance, aiming at the reduction of greenhouse gases through regulatory enforcement and, particularly, of a bunker levy scheme. The second area under investigation relates to the societal contribution of the sector by means of improving the maritime search and rescue operational effectiveness in the context of migration by sea emergencies. Despite the sector’s contribution toward this direction, through collaboration with coastal states and its significantly high involvement in conducting such activities, migration by sea crises are defined by the engagement of various other stakeholders, such as humanitarian organizations, coast guards, etc., adding more complexity to how such emergencies are addressed. This Ph.D. project produces three research articles that have, as their main objectives, the structuring of the status quo of the issues under study and the provision of guidance to the international community for addressing them. This section summarizes the main findings of the project and highlights its contribution to the global debate for achieving sustainable development targets.