Enemies or Friends? Disentangling the Role of Rivalry in Encouraging Virtual Gifting in Live Streaming PK Events

Zhao Cai, Alain Yee Loong Chong, Eric T.K. Lim, Chee-Wee Tan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


PK events, where two streamers are paired to compete for virtual gifts received in a given time, serve as an important source of revenue for Chinese live streaming platforms. Building on rivalry theory, we aim to elucidate the role of rivalry in enhancing viewers’ gifting behaviors for PK events. Specifically, we posit similarity, repeated competition, and competitiveness as the antecedents of rivalry of dyadic competitive relationships, which in turn influences viewers’ virtual gifting behaviors in support of their favored live streamer. To validate the hypothesized relationships, secondary data on PK events were collected from a leading live streaming platform. Findings from this study not only expand on extant literature by scrutinizing how rivalry arises on digital entertainment platforms where competitions are devised for increasing the exposure of entertainers, but also inform practitioners on how to match live streamers for PK events to maximize rivalry and viewers’ gifting behaviors.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 29th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS)
Place of PublicationAtlanta, GA
PublisherAssociation for Information Systems. AIS Electronic Library (AISeL)
Publication date2021
Article number1841
Publication statusPublished - 2021
EventThe 29th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) 2021: Human Values Crisis in a Digitizing World - Virtual Conference, Marrackech, Morocco
Duration: 14 Jun 202114 Jun 2021
Conference number: 29


ConferenceThe 29th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) 2021
LocationVirtual Conference
Internet address
SeriesProceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems

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