Does Non-profit Brand Image Mean the same Across Cultures? An Exploratory Evaluation of Non-profit Brand Image in Three Countries

Nina Michaelidou*, Milena Micevski, Selma Kadic-Maglajlic, Tribikram Budhathoki, Siddhartha Sarkar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Purpose: The current challenges international charities face with regards to their deteriorating image, as a result of recent scandals (e.g. Oxfam, Save the Children), provide the impetus for this exploratory research, where the purpose of this paper is to examine the conceptualization and dimensionality of non-profit brand image across national cultures. Design/methodology/approach: The study employs a quantitative research design, using multi-country samples from India, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the UK. The authors first examine the psychometric properties of the non-profit brand image scale via confirmatory factor analysis across countries, identifying the optimal model for invariance testing. Further, the authors use multi-group invariance analysis to evaluate whether non-profit brand image (using an 18-item scale and six factors) provides equivalent measurement across cultures. Findings: The study shows that individuals in the three countries perceive non-profit brand image equally, and as consisting of perceptions of usefulness, efficiency, affect, dynamism, reliability and ethicality. However, the results also indicate that the means of the dimensions of non-profit brand image are not comparable across different cultures. Originality/value: The study extends limited current literature on non-profit brand image in international contexts, deriving insightful suggestions for further theoretical approaches in this under-developed research domain. It also yields key implications for charities and other non-profit organizations operating internationally, as they can use non-profit brand image and its dimensions as actionable tools in their communication campaigns to shape their brand image.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Marketing Review
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)979-995
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Brand image
  • Charities
  • Cross-national
  • Donations
  • Non-profit brand image

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