Do Tourists Stand by the Tourism Industry? Examining Solidarity During and After a Pandemic

Florian Kock*, Albert George Assaf, Mike G. Tsionas, Alexander Josiassen, Marion Karl

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


How does the suffering of a whole industry influence people’s attitudes toward that industry? This research is the first, across disciplines, to examine this question. The authors provide the first conceptual study and empirical test for the phenomenon called tourism solidarity. Based on seminal social psychology research, tourism solidarity is conceptualized and defined as an individual’s compassion with and support of an industry, resulting from an observation of suffering. The authors use a covariance-based structural equation model as well as a novel Bayesian estimation approach (i.e., non-parametric) to develop a reliable and easy-to-apply tourism solidarity scale and assess its role of solidarity in two consecutive empirical studies. By doing so, the authors are able to empirically demonstrate the importance of tourism solidarity for tourist behavior, and provide both tourism researchers and practitioners with a conceptual model and measurement tool to assess, quantify and actively manage solidarity toward the tourism industry.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Travel Research
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)696-712
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

Published online: 21 April 2023


  • Tourism solidarity
  • Covid-19
  • Tourist psychology
  • Tourist behavior
  • Tourism ethnocentrism

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