Designing for Movement Quality in Exergames

Lessons Learned from Observing Senior Citizens Playing Stepping Games

Nina Skjæret, Ather Nawaz, Kristine Ystmark, Jorunn L. Helbostad, Dag Svanaes, Beatrix Vereijken

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Exergames are increasingly used as an exercise intervention to reduce fall risk in elderly. However, few exergames have been designed specifically for elderly, and we lack knowledge about the characteristics of the movements elicited by exergames and thereby about their potential to train functions important for fall risk reduction. Objective: This study investigates game elements and older players' movement characteristics during stepping exergames in order to inform exergame design for movement quality in the context of fall preventive exercise. Methods: Fourteen senior citizens (mean age 73 years ± 5.7, range 65 - 85) played 3 stepping exergames in a laboratory. Each of the exergames was described with respect to 7 game elements (physical space, sensing hardware technology, game graphics and sound, model of user, avatar/mapping of movements, game mechanism and game narrative). Five movement characteristics (weight shift; variation in step length, speed, and movement direction; visual independency) were scored on a 5-point Likert scale based on video observations of each player and each game. Disagreement between raters was resolved by agreement. Differences in scores for the 3 exergames were analyzed with a multivariate one-way ANOVA. Results: The Mole received the highest sum score and the best score on each of the 5 movement characteristics (all p values <0.0005). LightRace scored the lowest of the 3 exergames on weight shift and variation in movement direction (both p values <0.0005), while DanceDanceRevolution scored lowest on step length variation and visual independency (p < 0.03 and p < 0.0005, respectively), and lower than The Mole on speed variation (p < 0.05). The physical space players used when exergaming and the on-screen representation of the player, affected movement quality positively as indexed by multiple weight shifts and variation in stepping size, direction, and speed. Furthermore, players' movements improved when playing speed-affected game progression and when the game narrative was related to a natural context. Conclusion: Comparing differences in game elements with associated differences in game movement requirements provides valuable insights about how to design for movement quality in exergames. This provided important lessons for the design of exergames for fall-preventive exercise in senior citizens and illustrates the value of including analyses of movement characteristics when designing such exergames.
Original languageEnglish
JournalGerontology
Volume61
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)186-194
Number of pages9
ISSN0304-324X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

CBS Library does not have acccess to the material

Keywords

  • Elderly
  • Exergames
  • Falls
  • Movement characteristics
  • Stepping

Cite this

Skjæret, Nina ; Nawaz, Ather ; Ystmark, Kristine ; Helbostad, Jorunn L. ; Svanaes, Dag ; Vereijken, Beatrix. / Designing for Movement Quality in Exergames : Lessons Learned from Observing Senior Citizens Playing Stepping Games. In: Gerontology. 2015 ; Vol. 61, No. 2. pp. 186-194.
@article{570ca0792f854a4e87e78ef6bd0fca16,
title = "Designing for Movement Quality in Exergames: Lessons Learned from Observing Senior Citizens Playing Stepping Games",
abstract = "Background: Exergames are increasingly used as an exercise intervention to reduce fall risk in elderly. However, few exergames have been designed specifically for elderly, and we lack knowledge about the characteristics of the movements elicited by exergames and thereby about their potential to train functions important for fall risk reduction. Objective: This study investigates game elements and older players' movement characteristics during stepping exergames in order to inform exergame design for movement quality in the context of fall preventive exercise. Methods: Fourteen senior citizens (mean age 73 years ± 5.7, range 65 - 85) played 3 stepping exergames in a laboratory. Each of the exergames was described with respect to 7 game elements (physical space, sensing hardware technology, game graphics and sound, model of user, avatar/mapping of movements, game mechanism and game narrative). Five movement characteristics (weight shift; variation in step length, speed, and movement direction; visual independency) were scored on a 5-point Likert scale based on video observations of each player and each game. Disagreement between raters was resolved by agreement. Differences in scores for the 3 exergames were analyzed with a multivariate one-way ANOVA. Results: The Mole received the highest sum score and the best score on each of the 5 movement characteristics (all p values <0.0005). LightRace scored the lowest of the 3 exergames on weight shift and variation in movement direction (both p values <0.0005), while DanceDanceRevolution scored lowest on step length variation and visual independency (p < 0.03 and p < 0.0005, respectively), and lower than The Mole on speed variation (p < 0.05). The physical space players used when exergaming and the on-screen representation of the player, affected movement quality positively as indexed by multiple weight shifts and variation in stepping size, direction, and speed. Furthermore, players' movements improved when playing speed-affected game progression and when the game narrative was related to a natural context. Conclusion: Comparing differences in game elements with associated differences in game movement requirements provides valuable insights about how to design for movement quality in exergames. This provided important lessons for the design of exergames for fall-preventive exercise in senior citizens and illustrates the value of including analyses of movement characteristics when designing such exergames.",
keywords = "Elderly, Exergames, Falls, Movement characteristics, Stepping, Elderly, Exergames, Falls, Movement characteristics, Stepping",
author = "Nina Skj{\ae}ret and Ather Nawaz and Kristine Ystmark and Helbostad, {Jorunn L.} and Dag Svanaes and Beatrix Vereijken",
note = "CBS Library does not have acccess to the material",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1159/000365755",
language = "English",
volume = "61",
pages = "186--194",
journal = "Gerontology",
issn = "0304-324X",
publisher = "S.Karger AG",
number = "2",

}

Designing for Movement Quality in Exergames : Lessons Learned from Observing Senior Citizens Playing Stepping Games. / Skjæret, Nina; Nawaz, Ather; Ystmark, Kristine; Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Svanaes, Dag; Vereijken, Beatrix.

In: Gerontology, Vol. 61, No. 2, 2015, p. 186-194.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Designing for Movement Quality in Exergames

T2 - Lessons Learned from Observing Senior Citizens Playing Stepping Games

AU - Skjæret, Nina

AU - Nawaz, Ather

AU - Ystmark, Kristine

AU - Helbostad, Jorunn L.

AU - Svanaes, Dag

AU - Vereijken, Beatrix

N1 - CBS Library does not have acccess to the material

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Background: Exergames are increasingly used as an exercise intervention to reduce fall risk in elderly. However, few exergames have been designed specifically for elderly, and we lack knowledge about the characteristics of the movements elicited by exergames and thereby about their potential to train functions important for fall risk reduction. Objective: This study investigates game elements and older players' movement characteristics during stepping exergames in order to inform exergame design for movement quality in the context of fall preventive exercise. Methods: Fourteen senior citizens (mean age 73 years ± 5.7, range 65 - 85) played 3 stepping exergames in a laboratory. Each of the exergames was described with respect to 7 game elements (physical space, sensing hardware technology, game graphics and sound, model of user, avatar/mapping of movements, game mechanism and game narrative). Five movement characteristics (weight shift; variation in step length, speed, and movement direction; visual independency) were scored on a 5-point Likert scale based on video observations of each player and each game. Disagreement between raters was resolved by agreement. Differences in scores for the 3 exergames were analyzed with a multivariate one-way ANOVA. Results: The Mole received the highest sum score and the best score on each of the 5 movement characteristics (all p values <0.0005). LightRace scored the lowest of the 3 exergames on weight shift and variation in movement direction (both p values <0.0005), while DanceDanceRevolution scored lowest on step length variation and visual independency (p < 0.03 and p < 0.0005, respectively), and lower than The Mole on speed variation (p < 0.05). The physical space players used when exergaming and the on-screen representation of the player, affected movement quality positively as indexed by multiple weight shifts and variation in stepping size, direction, and speed. Furthermore, players' movements improved when playing speed-affected game progression and when the game narrative was related to a natural context. Conclusion: Comparing differences in game elements with associated differences in game movement requirements provides valuable insights about how to design for movement quality in exergames. This provided important lessons for the design of exergames for fall-preventive exercise in senior citizens and illustrates the value of including analyses of movement characteristics when designing such exergames.

AB - Background: Exergames are increasingly used as an exercise intervention to reduce fall risk in elderly. However, few exergames have been designed specifically for elderly, and we lack knowledge about the characteristics of the movements elicited by exergames and thereby about their potential to train functions important for fall risk reduction. Objective: This study investigates game elements and older players' movement characteristics during stepping exergames in order to inform exergame design for movement quality in the context of fall preventive exercise. Methods: Fourteen senior citizens (mean age 73 years ± 5.7, range 65 - 85) played 3 stepping exergames in a laboratory. Each of the exergames was described with respect to 7 game elements (physical space, sensing hardware technology, game graphics and sound, model of user, avatar/mapping of movements, game mechanism and game narrative). Five movement characteristics (weight shift; variation in step length, speed, and movement direction; visual independency) were scored on a 5-point Likert scale based on video observations of each player and each game. Disagreement between raters was resolved by agreement. Differences in scores for the 3 exergames were analyzed with a multivariate one-way ANOVA. Results: The Mole received the highest sum score and the best score on each of the 5 movement characteristics (all p values <0.0005). LightRace scored the lowest of the 3 exergames on weight shift and variation in movement direction (both p values <0.0005), while DanceDanceRevolution scored lowest on step length variation and visual independency (p < 0.03 and p < 0.0005, respectively), and lower than The Mole on speed variation (p < 0.05). The physical space players used when exergaming and the on-screen representation of the player, affected movement quality positively as indexed by multiple weight shifts and variation in stepping size, direction, and speed. Furthermore, players' movements improved when playing speed-affected game progression and when the game narrative was related to a natural context. Conclusion: Comparing differences in game elements with associated differences in game movement requirements provides valuable insights about how to design for movement quality in exergames. This provided important lessons for the design of exergames for fall-preventive exercise in senior citizens and illustrates the value of including analyses of movement characteristics when designing such exergames.

KW - Elderly

KW - Exergames

KW - Falls

KW - Movement characteristics

KW - Stepping

KW - Elderly

KW - Exergames

KW - Falls

KW - Movement characteristics

KW - Stepping

U2 - 10.1159/000365755

DO - 10.1159/000365755

M3 - Journal article

VL - 61

SP - 186

EP - 194

JO - Gerontology

JF - Gerontology

SN - 0304-324X

IS - 2

ER -