Design and Development of Virtual Patients for Healthcare Education: State of the Art and Research

Carolin Gellner, Anne-Katrin Witte, Till J. Winkler

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


The digital transformation of healthcare and the COVID-19 pandemic have accelerated research and deployment of virtual patients (VP), that is, interactive computer simulations used in healthcare education to train students on clinical processes. To help researchers and practitioners understand the state of the art in VP development, we conducted a systematic literature review of 48 papers. Our analysis focused on educational level, medical specialty, competencies, technologies, technical format, and operating systems and tools. We found that VPs are primarily used in the medical field and student education as interactive patient scenarios based on multimedia system technology. VP authoring systems were identified as the primary tool for developing primary clinical reasoning skills. Based on our findings, we suggest implications for medical education research and practice.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationWirtschaftsinformatik 2023 Proceedings
EditorsDaniel Beverungen, Christiane Lehrer, Matthias Trier
Number of pages17
Place of PublicationWWW
PublisherAssociation for Information Systems. AIS Electronic Library (AISeL)
Publication date2023
Article number163
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Event18. Internationale Tagung Wirtschaftsinformatik. WI 2023 - Universität Paderborn, Paderborn, Germany
Duration: 18 Sept 202321 Sept 2023
Conference number: 18


Conference18. Internationale Tagung Wirtschaftsinformatik. WI 2023
LocationUniversität Paderborn
Internet address
SeriesWirtschaftsinformatik Proceedings


  • Virtual patient
  • Literature review
  • Simulation
  • Technology

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