Consumer-focused Solar-grid Net Zero Energy Buildings: A Multi-objective Weighted Sum Optimization and Application for India

Deepthisree Madathil*, V. Ravikumar Pandi, Manjula G. Nair, Tooraj Jamasb, Tripta Thakur

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Buildings account for nearly 40% of the world's energy consumption. Renewable energy sources can help decarbonization by facilitating the achievement of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB). NZEB can be achieved by efficient coordination of the grid-connected load in the building tuned to a consumer's energy demand, usage pattern, and available energy sources. An effective NZEB system calls for an energy-efficient management technique. This paper proposes a novel mathematical strategy for electrical energy management in a residential building. The suggested method establishes a Net Zero Energy (NZE) in a residential building with maximum electrical energy comfort and minimum drain on electrical energy. We validate the concept using a Multi-Objective Differential Evolution optimization methodology using a consumer-controlled approach to obtain Pareto points to guarantee optimal solutions in an NZEB. The proposed scheme delineates the net cumulative electrical energy cost savings of the consumer, ensuring minimum electrical energy discomfort, and minimization of carbon footprints in an NZE Photovoltaic-Grid tied residential building. We highlight the socioeconomic benefits of adopting the methodology in identifying the true potential of NZEBs in meeting global challenges. This research provides insights to the engineers and policy makers to increase consumer participation in the energy performance in an NZEB.
Original languageEnglish
JournalSustainable Production and Consumption
Pages (from-to)2101-2111
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • Net zero energy buildings
  • Differential evolution
  • Multi-objective optimization
  • Weighted sum method
  • Renewable energy
  • Carbon tax

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