Conceptualizing and Measuring Transformational and Transactional Leadership

Ulrich Thy Jensen, Lotte Bøgh Andersen, Louise Ladegaard Bro, Anne Bøllingtoft, Tine Louise Mundbjerg Eriksen, Ann-Louise Holten, Christian Bøtcher Jacobsen, Jacob Ladenburg, Poul Aaes Nielsen, Heidi Houlberg Salomonsen, Niels Westergård-Nielsen, Allan Würtz

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


    Existing conceptualizations and measures of transformational and transactional leadership have unclear theoretical bases, confound leadership and its effects, and are not necessarily suitable for public organizations. Overcoming these problems is necessary to test how leadership affects performance. Many public administration scholars apply the concepts, emphasizing the need to ensure that the concepts are applicable in both public and private organizations. The article reconceptualizes transformational and transactional leadership and develops and tests revised measures that can be employed on employees and leaders, are robust in terms of repeated use by the same respondents, and are applicable to public and private organizations alike.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalAdministration & Society
    Issue number1
    Pages (from-to)3-33
    Number of pages31
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019

    Bibliographical note

    Published online: August 28, 2016


    • Transformational leadership
    • Transactional leadership
    • Measurement validity
    • Public organizations
    • Private organizations

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