Augmented Writing: New Opportunities for Lexicography?

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We live in an age of disruption, and lexicography as a scientific discipline and practice has already been disrupted in several ways. A relatively new disruptive technology is augmented writing, which seems to challenge the role of dictionaries in a dramatic fashion. Augmented writing (AW) may even be described as Lexicography 3.0 and might even be called “smart lexicography”. The discussion offered in this presentation indicates that AW disrupts not only lexicography to a very high degree, but also writing and copyediting.
The presentation discusses the strengths and weaknesses of augmented writing in relation to lexicography, and how AW might challenge lexicography in a number of areas. The presentation also offers various theoretical reflections on AW. The discussion is based on both a structured literature review and on empirical data from a structured test and analysis of sixteen different AW technologies.
Based on the analysis and discussion this presentation offers a number of theoretical considerations on how lexicography is affected by AW. The presentation also offers theoretical reflections on how lexicography may make AW even better by providing what AI cannot; transfer of knowledge into practice, knowledge of the world, emotional knowledge and relational intelligence. Based on the analysis and discussion it was found that the entire lexicographic process chain might very well be severely impacted and to some extent completely changed by AW technologies. The analysis also seems to indicate that AW technologies threaten to leave behind certain lexicographic processes, disciplines and data categories, and that such technologies will have severe implications for the core competences of lexicographers and for the way the user uses AW-supported lexicographic services. The analysis also seem to indicate that the business potential of AW services seems to be significant. Finally, the presentation includes a number of theoretical reflections based on a symbiotic division of labour, which enables both AI and humans to do what they do best.
The analysis of the sixteen AW services and the related findings are thus estimated to be highly relevant for everybody interested in lexicographic business development, lexicographic business models and innovative technologies.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationElectronicLlexicography in the 21st Century (eLex 2019): Smart Lexicography : Book of Abstract
EditorsIztok Kosem, Tanara Zingano Kuhn
Number of pages1
Place of PublicationBrno
PublisherLexical Computing CZ s.r.o.
Publication date2019
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Event6th Biennial Conference on Electronic Lexicography. eLex 2019 - Sintra, Portugal
Duration: 1 Oct 20193 Oct 2019
Conference number: 6


Conference6th Biennial Conference on Electronic Lexicography. eLex 2019
Internet address


  • Augmented writing
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Lexicographic business model

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