Nonprofit brand image plays an important role in shaping consumers' charitable donations and therefore nonprofit organizations must be aware of how consumers perceive them. This research examines nonprofit brand image and reports findings from three empirical studies, which aim to offer a better conceptualization and measurement of the concept. Study 1 investigates the psychometric properties of the Michel and Rieunier's (2012) nonprofit brand image scales with a sample from the UK, and reports key methodological limitations. Specifically, discriminant and convergent validity tests highlight the need for further research into the dimensionality of the nonprofit brand image measures. Subsequently, studies 2 and 3 offer an improved conceptualization and measurement of nonprofit brand image and validate the scales via the use of 2 separate data sets. The new measure consists of 6 dimensions namely, usefulness, efficiency, affect, dynamism, reliability and ethicality which are significantly related to intentions to donate money and time.
- Nonprofit brand image
- Scale evaluation
- Scale validation
- Scale extension and improvement