Alleviating Energy Poverty in Europe: Front-runners and Laggards

Ana Rodriguez-Alvarez, Manuel Llorca*, Tooraj Jamasb

*Corresponding author for this work

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In recent years, awareness of energy poverty has gained increasing attention in European countries. Comparative country studies can enhance our understanding of the causes and effects of this growing problem. This paper proposes a new model for the analysis of energy poverty. We define a theoretical framework and model to estimate an energy poverty frontier. The estimated frontier indicates the minimum level of energy poverty that a country can achieve given its income level, energy prices, energy intensity, and other country-specific features. We apply the approach to a sample of 30 European countries during the period 2005–2018. This allows us to contrast whether policy measures aimed at reducing the poverty among vulnerable individuals and households have been effective. The results indicate that financial aid aimed at vulnerable groups, reductions in energy prices, and improvements in energy efficiency have been beneficial against energy poverty. These factors may partly explain why, despite the negative income impact of the financial crisis, we found a steady and general energy poverty reduction during the period in almost all the countries analysed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number105575
JournalEnergy Economics
Number of pages28
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

Published online: 14. September 2021


  • Energy poverty in Europe
  • Energy poverty determinants
  • Social protection
  • Stochastic frontier analysis

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