A Meta-analysis of Sustainable Tourist Behavioral Intention and the Moderation Effects of National Culture

Torben Hansen*, Stephan Olk, Thyra Uth Thomsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


This study provides new insights into the factors that shape tourists’ sustainable behavioral intention by conducting a meta-analysis based on 95 published studies with 47,425 participants from 38 countries. Building upon the theory of planned behavior and value-belief-norm theory, we propose and show the relevance of distinguishing between characteristics that relate to behavioral constructs (i.e. home behavior), social constructs (i.e. social interactions), environmental values (i.e. pro-environmental/anti-environmental values), and mental constructs (i.e. involvement/awareness, knowledge, perceived behavioral control, attitude) during investigation of sustainable tourist attitude and behavioral intention. We also demonstrate that sustainability antecedents do not necessarily influence behavioral intention directly but that they may have an indirect influence through pro-environmental attitude. We find that particularly social interaction and involvement/awareness drive attitude, while social interaction, attitude, and home behavior drive behavioral intention. In addition, this meta-analysis provides insights into the moderating effects of national culture on the relationships between sustainable antecedents, tourism pro-attitude, and behavioral intention. Investigating all the six national values suggested by Hofstede, we find that “power distance” and “individualism” are particularly powerful moderators of these relationships. This research offers several implications to tourist managers and public authorities interested in tourist sustainability attitude and behavioral intention.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Sustainable Tourism
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)883-903
Number of pages21
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

Published online: 6 March 2023.


  • Meta-analysis
  • Sustainability
  • Tourist behavioral intention
  • National values

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