Increasing female labour market participation is arguably one of the decisive factors in explaining a destandardisation of the European employment model. Due to a lack in institutions that allow combining wage and care work and in light of unequal gender distribution of care work women are particularly overrepresented in part-time employment and have more flexible careers but they are also disproportionally affected by other characteristics of destandardisation such as fixed-term work and particularly low pay. Destandardisation of female employment is also an outcome of the strong concentration of women in specific occupations with the services sector. This paper makes use of the cross-country variation in terms of destandardisation of female employment as compared to male employment and tries to explain the country differences by way of institutions (particularly child- and elderly care but also leave policies and flexible work schedules) that allow combining “standard” work with care activities. Cross-country differences in female employment rates are also taken account of. The focus is on the services sector. The EU-SILC data will be used as it not only contains data for a large set of European countries but at the same time provides panel data on an individual level. This allows getting a more accurate picture of the degree and persistency of destandardisation as different forms of flexibility can be combined on the individual level. In order to take account of institutional differences at the country level the OECD family data base is used. Besides presenting descriptive statistics on the gender gaps in the services sector with regard to flexible forms of work, including their overlaps, the paper also makes use of multilevel analysis to explain the country differences in the gender gaps in terms of flexible work by differences in institutions and overall employment rates.
|Status||Udgivet - 2012|
|Begivenhed||SASE 24th Annual Conference 2012: Implications for Business, Government and Labour - Cambridge MA, USA|
Varighed: 28 jun. 2012 → 30 jun. 2012
Konferencens nummer: 24
|Konference||SASE 24th Annual Conference 2012|
|Periode||28/06/2012 → 30/06/2012|
|Andet||At Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT|