Pre-clusterization in Emerging Markets: The Toyota Group's Entry Process in China

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Drawing on network analysis and informing the internationalization process of Japanese firms, this study introduces an ad hoc entry strategy, termed ‘pre-clusterization’. Unlike conventional keiretsu firms, competitive suppliers in a well-integrated network can enter a new market and begin clustering in a location that the core firm targets before the full entry of the core firm. The process of pre-clusterization is illustrated using a case study of the Toyota Group in China. A number of testable propositions are presented. Findings reveal the importance of strategic collective actions when coping with intensive competition and uncertainty in emerging market contexts.
TidsskriftAsia Pacific Business Review
Udgave nummer3
Sider (fra-til)369-387
Antal sider19
StatusUdgivet - 2009
Udgivet eksterntJa


  • Automotive industry
  • Internationalization process
  • Network-based market entry
  • Pre-clusterization
  • Speed of capacity building