Organizational Implementation of AI: Craft and Mechanical Work

Konstantin Hopf, Oliver Müller, Arisa Shollo, Tiemo Theiss

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Recent years have brought major technological breakthroughs in artificial intelligence (AI), and firms are expected to invest nearly $98 B in 2023. However, many AI projects never leave the pilot phase, and many companies have difficulties extracting value from their AI initiatives. To explain this contradiction, this article reports on a study of 55 projects implementing AI in organizations. It shows that organizational challenges in implementing AI projects are a result of a paradoxical tension created by two different perspectives on data science work: craft and mechanical work. Executives, managers, and data scientists should actively manage this tension to enable and sustain value creation through AI.
TidsskriftCalifornia Management Review
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)23-47
Antal sider25
StatusUdgivet - nov. 2023

Bibliografisk note

Published online: 19 September 2023.


  • Artificial intelligence
  • Value creation
  • Organization
  • Workplace
  • Implementing innovation