Global Cities, the Liability of Foreignness, and Theory on Place and Space in International Business

Anthony Goerzen*, Christian Geisler Asmussen, Bo Bernhard Nielsen

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review


Goerzen et al. (J Int Bus Stud 44:427–450, 2013) became influential because it generated a broader view of the international business (IB) domain. The paper broke new ground by going beyond the country and regional levels to analyze MNE location choices, a novel approach that revealed the importance of global cities. The original argument suggested that global connectedness, cosmopolitanism, and advanced producer services mitigated the liability of foreignness, thereby highlighting the complexity of MNE location decisions. It also drew attention to the need for IB research to take a more nuanced view of MNE behavior. Developments since 2013, however, have rendered a very different world. Our goal in this commentary, therefore, is to challenge the IB community to think more deeply about the future of global cities specifically and about IB more generally. We do this by re-evaluating the role of cities as micro-locations against the emergence of megatrends that are shaping our future, including demographic shift and an increase in social awareness, the changing natural environment and an increase in sustainability concerns, and the rise in capability and application of digital technologies. We conclude by suggesting that IB research must connect more deeply with interdisciplinary theories and methodologies to produce generative IB research.
TidsskriftJournal of International Business Studies
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)10-27
Antal sider18
StatusUdgivet - feb. 2024

Bibliografisk note

Published online: 21 December 2023.


  • Global cities
  • Liability of foreignness
  • Economic geography
  • Location strategy
  • Multinational corporations